From American Cinematographer, Common Sense and Camera Angles by William Stull, ASC (Feb. 1932)
"The idea that camera movement will give cinematic movement to an otherwise static scene or study, so prevalent among directors and executives, is basically false... Unjustified movement is a sign of directorial weakness, not strength... Once camera movement is decided upon as dramatically necessary, however, director and cinematographer must cooperate closely in realizing it with the utmost of technical and artistic perfection, for a badly executed move is worse than none at all. Many factors must be considered: speed, angle, and above all, rhythm. The preceding action will inevitably have established a definite dramatic (and often physical) tempo or rhythm; the moving camera scene must follow out the same rhythm, or, in some rare instance, increase it."
- Rouben Mamoulian